Thursday, November 30, 2006
The parking garage is being constructedunder two and a half blocks and will have room for 1,500 cars. Garage lights will be on 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year.
The garage will use induction lights,which last 100,000 hours and provide an impressive 71 lumens per watt. (Lumens area measure of the amount of light.) Standard metal halide lights are rated at only 10,000hours and 51 lumens per watt.
"This means the induction lights needonly 40 percent of the energy,” said Karasaki. "Maintenance costs are also much less because they last 10 times longer. And, the system as designed costs less to begin with."
This will be the first major garage installation of induction lighting on the West Coast.
"Lower energy use and increased occupant comfort is a great combination," said Karasaki.
Parking garages are often considered dim, dirty and dangerous places that are concrete blights on our urban landscapes. Fortunately, this image is rapidly changing as parking garages become more upscale. Architects, owners and designers are beginning to realize that a better-looking garage with quality lighting will not only improve the environment, but will attract more customers.
The Visual Environment
Many factors will affect the visual environment within a parking garage, including vertical illumination, the light source and glare. Facility designers must achieve a balance between these factors to create a comfortable environment that attracts customers and makes them feel safe and secure.
The first question designers often face is how much light is needed within the facility. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) offers specific recommendations, as shown in Table 1. The values suggested represent the lowest levels that should be used within a parking structure.
Today, many designers and owners have increased these levels to achieve better uniformity ratios and provide a safer visual environment. Many facilities are designed to 5 footcandles (horizontal and vertical) with uniformity ratios near 5:1. To assure that the garage meets your expectations as far as the lighting is concerned, you may want to survey other facilities in your area before establishing the lighting guidelines.
The introduction of new energy efficient products at Rebuild Hawaii meetings is a great way to discover an application that may meet your needs. An example of this resulted after James Thomas, Stingray Lighting, presented a new lighting system called the “Stingray Dual Reflector Induction Garage Light.” This fixture also incorporates Philips Lighting’s QL induction lamp that uses a revolutionary technology of light generation that combines the basic principals of induction and gas discharge in an A-lamp design. This new technology delivers an unprecedented 100,000 hours of high quality white light.
After this presentation, Mr. Bob Martin, Chief Engineer of 1132 Bishop Street Building, which is managed by Colliers Monroe Friedlander Management Inc., knew of the perfect application for the product. The high energy consuming light system in the building’s parking garage.
The Stingray Dual Reflector System is currently installed in two of the five floors in the parking structure and retrofitting of the remaining floors will be completed in the future. This new technology is the first of its kind in Hawaii. The garage lighting is noticeably brighter due to the white light verses yellow light (HPS).
In addition the 1132 parking garage will save approximately 50% of its former energy costs not to mention the maintenance savings generated due to the long life of the Philips Induction System. Hawaiian Electric has authorized a rebate of approximately $68.00 per fixture under its customized rebate program for this product.
You can find their presentation and photos of the installation site here.
Wednesday, November 29, 2006
From the Sacramento Municipal Utility District are summaries on lighting systems. Here's is one on induction lighting.
Induction Lighting Systems
Almost every type of lighting system has a common weakness - the lamp filament. Most lamp failures are due to degradation of the filament or electrodes. About ten years ago, lighting manufacturers introduced a product that did not require electrodes: the induction lighting system. According to manufacturers, some of these lamps will last over 100,000 hours - over 25 years for most users! Today SMUD customers are finding new energy saving applications for this technology.
This evaluation report focuses on induction lighting systems and attempts to address the following questions: How do these systems work? Are they cost effective? What are some of the applications and challenges associated with using this technology?
Induction (Electrodeless) lighting
With induction lighting, there are no filaments or electrodes. These systems consist of high frequency ballast/generator, a lamp (or discharge vessel), and a power coupler. The systems range in wattage from 23 Watts to 165 Watts, with efficacies of 48 to 73 lumens per Watt.
Along with their high lighting efficacies, they have high power factors (above 0.94), good color rendering indexes (82-85), resistance to vibration, quick ignition and re-ignition times (under 1 second), and a rated life with U.S. test procedures of 100,000 hours, as compared with 24,000 hours for many fluorescent and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps.
Some sample Web sites for products are shown below.
Information on the Philips QL lamp system (click on eCatalogue and QL Induction Lighting)
GE Genura (TM) lamp information
Osram-Sylvania ICETRONTM information
Lighting Research Center case study application in New York City (Web site requires Adobe Acrobat to view)
Light Emitting Diode (LED) systems are being used in traffic lights and information signs in the United States. Many exit signs in buildings have LED lighting systems that provide the illumination of the "EXIT" letters. They are much more energy efficient and have longer lives than incandescent lamps.
Other applications include walk/don't walk fixtures, display lighting, and facade lighting. Designers are now starting to use white LED lighting for indoor and general illumination activities.
Some sample Web sites for products are shown below.
Precision Solar Control LED traffic lighting
LED Light company indoor lamps and fixtures
Department of Energy web site on solid state lighting
Ir. Martin WU Kwok-tin
Energy Efficiency Office, Electrical & Mechanical Services Department
As part of the Pilot Energy Management Opportunity (EMO) Implementation Programme using innovative energy efficient equipment, Energy Efficiency Office (EEO) of Electrical and Mechanical Services Department (EMSD) has completed a pilot project in March 2003 using the latest induction lighting technology in Squash Court No. 2 at Kowloon Bay Indoor Games Hall. The work covered the supply and installation of four new high-bay luminaries, completed with 2 nos. 150W induction lamps and electronic ballasts, to replace the existing six 250W metal halide high-bay luminaries in the squash court. The new induction lamps are actually fluorescent lamps without any electrodes for electrons emission. Because of the electrodeless property, induction lamps have extreme long life and the lifetime of the system is determined primarily by the lifetime of the ballast (i.e. 60,000 hours). Preliminary test results indicated that the power consumption of the squash court reduced from 1.65 kW to 1.25 kW and the average illumination increased from 470 lux to 710 lux. Other advantages of the new induction lighting system include instant flicker-free starting and restrict, higher colour rendering index (>80), lower luminous depreciation and less maintenance requirements due to a much longer lamp and equipment life. The estimated payback period lies within 5 to 8 years.
Engineering Web Results for induction lamp 1 - 10 of 423,386
Renewed Interest in Induction Lamp Technology By: David C. Lai and James C. Lai... Principle of Induction Lighting. advantage of the technology.. Induction lighting is based on the well-known principles of. 3. Both induction lamp suppliers and fixture. induction and light generation ... http://www.imsasafety.org/journal/septoct04/7.pdf
Induction Lamp Considerations Induction Lamp Considerations. Induction Lamps for Outdoor Lighting: What You Should Know About This Technology. New "electrodeless" induction lamps can last up to 20 years before burning out. That?s ... http://www.pseg.com/customer/business/small/outdoorlighting/induction.jsp
INDUCTION LAMP TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES MORE THAN 27 YEARS LIFE EXPECTANCY TO HIGHWAY... ... lamp technology as well.. Induction lamps use an induction coil or energy-coupling antenna without. electrodes, that discharge gas at low-pressure. The center of the lamp is the induction coil powered ... http://www.itsinternational.com/pressreleases/article.cfm?recordID=24
Frequently asked questions about... Induction Lighting Q: What is the induction ... Induction Lighting. Q:. What is the induction lamp system and how does induction lighting work?. Q:. Is the induction lamp dimmable?. A:. The induction lamp system uses a revolutionary technology of ... http://www.eclipselightinginc.com/pdf/Induction_FAQ.pdf
Esco Lighting Inc. Induction Lamp Lighting Systems Surface Mount Square Fixtures Recessed Square Fixtures Surface Mount Round Fixtures Recessed Round Downlights Floodlights and Outdoor Area Lighting Municipality Series Induction Lamp Fixtures ... http://www.escolighting.com/
Quixote Traffic Corporation - Induction Lamp Technology The center of the lamp is the induction coil powered by an electronic unit at the base of the lamp. The glass assembly surrounding the induction coil contains an electron-ion plasma material and is ... http://www.peek-traffic.com/products/signage/induction_lamp_technology.htm
Municipality R000 Series Architectural Recessed Downlight With 2x2 Lay-In ... R000 SERIES LOW BRIGHTNESS OPEN DOWNLIGHT volt, 50 or 60 Hz. Contact factory for other voltages. Lamp Philips QL induction electrodeless fluorescent lamp with av-. erage rated life 100,000 hours. Trim ... http://www.escolighting.com/PDFfiles/tabr000ql.PDF [More results from this site: www.escolighting.com]
VMVIG and DMVIG Series CHAMP ?Induction L u m i n a i r e s w i t h I n d u c t ... CHAMP ?Induction. Applications Include:. Get uninterrupted light for up to 11 years, without changing a lamp. Cooper Crouse-Hinds? Champ Luminaire. with Induction Light Source delivers up. to 100,000 ... http://www.crouse-hinds.com/CrouseHinds/newproducts/relatedinfo/Champ_Induction_Broch
if 1463 revision 3.qxp Refer to the. follow.. instructions supplied with the replacement induction lamp system.. 11.. Turn power on.. 4.. Install the lamp over the power coupler (See Induction Lighting. System instruction ... http://www.crouse-hinds.com/CrouseHinds/InstallationDocs/IF1463.pdf [More results from this site: www.crouse-hinds.com]
Road Traffic Technology - Induction Lamp Technology Provides More Than 27 Years... ... lamp technology as well.. Induction lamps use an induction coil or energy-coupling antenna without electrodes, that discharge gas at low-pressure. The center of the lamp is the induction coil powered ... http://www.roadtraffic-technology.com/contractors/driver_info/quixote_traffic/press4.html
What are the benefits of high-output T5s and induction fluorescents?
Switching from HID lamps to HO T5 fluorescent lamps is now a common strategy for increasing energy efficiency in warehouses and other high-bay lighting situations. Both HO T5s and induction fluorescents:
Are capable of instant-on and instant re-strike.
Can be used with energy-saving occupancy sensors
Can be adjusted through dimming (with a dimmable ballast).
Have lower average mercury content than metal halide HID lamps.
Do high-output T5 and induction fluorescents perform as well as metal halide HID lamps in high-bay applications?
Yes. Several attributes are used to compare lamp performance:
Rated life is the average amount of time a lamp will function before failing.
The color rendering index (CRI) indicates how accurately a light source renders colors. A CRI of 100 is equivalent to sunlight. Lower CRIs indicate poorer color rendering.
A lumen is a measure of light flow. The higher the lumens, the more light is produced by the lamps in the fixture.
The lumen maintenance is a function of the rated life, showing the percentage of original lumens present after a certain percentage of the rated life has passed. Lumens decrease over the life of most lamps, so a lamp that maintains its lumen output for a longer period is more desirable.
The color temperature describes the appearance of the light in terms of the red and blue tones. Light that we perceive as redder or warmer has a lower color temperature, light that we perceive as bluer has a higher color temperature. While the color temperature of fluorescent and induction fluorescent lamps is stable over the life of the lamp, metal halide lamps tend to shift color over their lifetime.
Are both high-output T5 linear fluorescent and induction fluorescent lamps appropriate for all high-bay applications?
No. Fluorescent induction systems are the best choice for very cold conditions because they retain their efficiency at extremes of temperature. Because of their exceedingly long life, they also make sense in applications where it is difficult or costly to change a spent lamp. T5s, however, are more energy-efficient at moderate temperatures (25°C to 35°C) than induction lamps, so for locations that do not experience temperature extremes and where labor costs to change a spent lamp are not significant, HO T5s may be preferable.
Which high-bay lighting systems are more energy-efficient?
When calculating energy efficiency, it is important to consider the number of lamps contained in equivalent systems, as well as the number of watts per lamp. For instance, in the example in the table below, four HO T5 lamps or two induction fluorescent lamps are required to produce approximately the same amount of light as one metal halide HID lamp. The higher the lumens per watt, the less electricity is needed to produce equivalent light. The fewer the kilowatt-hours per year used by a lighting system, the less electricity a facility uses and pays for.
Which lamps are less expensive to purchase and run?
Comparative purchase prices can vary widely depending on volume purchased and location. Based on a small survey, metal halide systems are less expensive to purchase than either of the fluorescent systems, costing approximately 25 percent less ($150) than an equivalent four-lamp T5 system ($200). An equivalent two-lamp induction system costs about four times an equivalent T5 system ($800). 6
"Payback time" is the period that elapses before an initial investment is recouped, in this case through savings in electricity, lamp replacement, and maintenance/disposal costs. Payback time varies based on the size of the lighting project, the electricity rate, the particular fixtures selected, and other variables. The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power has a payback calculator at http://www.ladwp.com/energyadvisor/PA_46.html where you can input your variables.
A variety of case studies have reported payback times of 1.8 to 29.9 years for HO T5 high-bay replacement projects. 7 One case study reported a five- to eight-year payback period for an induction fluorescent high-bay relighting project. 8
Facility owners, managers, and architects specifying high-bay lighting applications should choose the most energy-efficient system with the lowest mercury content appropriate for their construction and remodeling projects.
Retrofit projects should be analyzed carefully for payback and benefits such as improved color rendering.
Before purchasing a lighting system, buyers should consult a lighting professional who can analyze the entire project for energy efficiency, lighting level, and appropriate color rendering. Tell your chosen professional that your organization would like to specify low-mercury alternatives wherever possible.
Facilities should recycle all mercury-containing products, including all HID lamps, T5s, and induction fluorescents.
For more information:
For more information:
T5 Fluorescent High-Bay Lighting Systems -- http://www.smud.org/education/cat/cat_pdf/T5.pdf
Induction Lighting Systems -- http://www.smud.org/education/cat/cat_pdf/Induction%20Lighting.pdf
Induction Lamps Installations at Kowloon Bay Indoor Games Hall -- http://www.emsd.gov.hk/emsd/e_download/pee/Induction%20lamps%20at%20kbigh.pdf
Lighting: HID Versus Fluorescent for High-Bay Lighting -- http://www.ladwp.com/energyadvisor/PA_46.html
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Jacques LeFevre, president of Indy Lighting, remembers the introduction of induction sources in the early '90s. "The first applications were outdoors and the lamps were quite expensive, so we didn't get too excited," said LeFevre. (Indy specializes in specification-grade fixtures for retail and commercial environments.) "But a couple of years ago, our customer base started to show an interest in induction lighting because of the long life, so we began working on fixtures for places like escalator wells and ceilings over open mall areas." Their first product was an induction downlight using the Icetron lamp that was installed above escalators and outside entrances to several Dillard's department stores. Indy now offers standard fixtures using both the 100W Icetron and the 85W QL lamps. Although LeFevre is enthusiastic about induction technology, he wants to be sure that limitations such as temperature control of the generators are addressed. He added, "Premature failures are always bad, but in the places we're putting these fixtures, they would be very costly to replace."
Bob Fiermuga is the owner of Eclipse Lighting, a company that specializes in decorative outdoor luminaires. He said, "We are fascinated by induction technology—we think some of the bigger manufacturers may be overlooking this market." Eclipse offers the 55W and 85W QL lamp in its Galileo outdoor wall sconce, as well as in several institutional and vandal-resistant fixtures. "Induction lighting is a premium system, but the maintenance benefits are worth it," said Fiermuga. "The public sector in particular is always looking for ways to trim their maintenance budgets." He also thinks that induction lighting makes sense for parking garage illumination. Although maintenance access is not difficult for these fixtures, they usually burn 24 hours a day, making the long lifetime an attractive feature. Eclipse offers four different garage fixtures that use either the 165W QL and the 150W Icetron lamp.
Another good place for induction lighting is in bollards. "We've been amazed at the interest in induction-lit bollards," said Kathleen Romfoe, product manager for Phoenix Products Co., an outdoor luminaire OEM. "Owners like the fact that you can put them out there and forget about them. We're selling them to municipal governments." Phoenix offers the 55W and 85W QL lamps in most of their bollards and in some shaded pendants and gooseneck fixtures.
Some of the key applications for induction lighting are roadway environments, particularly in tunnels and underpasses where maintenance is a real challenge. Robert Small, an engineering specialist with the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), says that to change some lamps over roadways requires a small battalion of workers, including bucket trucks equipped with crash cushions, flashing arrow vehicles, cone placement and retrieval, and even police cars. TxDOT is now installing three different types of induction fixtures on a testing basis in the Spring Valley Tunnel in Dallas. "If we get the expected lifetime out of these lamps, we won't be going out there to touch them for 20 years," said Small, noting that test installations are also underway or planned in El Paso, Austin and Ft. Worth.
The Texas installations demonstrate an additional benefit of induction technology: luminaire positioning. Typically, sodium fixtures are mounted to the side of the roadway for maintenance access, so they must throw light across the road. The induction fixtures can be mounted right over the road where they can more effectively and evenly illuminate the road surface.
Induction sources pose technical challenges, most of which have been addressed by vendors now that the technology is nearly a decade old. Early systems faced concerns about electromagnetic interference from the field generators, but today's products meet FCC 47CFR Part 18 Non-Consumer certification, and complaints are just about non-existent.
LeFevre points out that the relatively small lumen package of the induction sources poses a challenge for luminaire designers. He said, "We want to put these things in high-ceiling areas to get the maintenance benefits, but you need a lot of light to reach the floor from up there." The larger 165W Philips QL lamps have helped address this problem. Another consideration is that the induction sources are essentially big blobs of light, so it's more difficult to design an effective reflector for them than the small arc tube of HID sources. Eclipse's Bob Fiermuga notes that the shape of the QL lamp makes it more applicable for refractor-type downlights, while the flat profile of the Icetron makes it more appropriate for cutoff-type floodlights.
A final concern is the temperature sensitivity of the generator, which is a solid-state electronic device that can fail prematurely if it gets too hot. While HID systems can operate at temperatures of 90-105 degrees Celsius, induction systems are limited to the 70-75-degree Celsius range. Danny Lambeth, president of Infinity Lighting, explains that his engineers have been working for the past four years to solve the temperature limitations associated with induction technology. "If you exceed the rated temperature, the warranty is out the window," he said. Still, with careful design and testing, Lambeth thinks induction technology can do the job. He noted, "If you can design an induction fixture that can handle the heat, is watertight and explosion proof, it's a home run."
January/February 2002 Architectural Lighting Magazine
Tuesday, November 28, 2006
Manufacture of fluorescent high/low bay fixtures to replace HID's using the T5 HO and Induction light sources.
Here is a case study on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In contrast with all other electrical lamps that use electrical connections through the lamp envelope to transfer power to the lamp, in electrodeless lamps the power needed to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of (electro)magnetic fields. There are two advantages of eliminating electrodes. The first is extended bulb life, because the electrodes are usually the limiting factor in bulb life. The second benefit is the ability to use light-generating substances that would react with metal electrodes in normal lamps.
Two systems are described below—one based on conventional fluorescent lamp phosphors, and a second based on the use of direct-radiating sulfur vapor.
in 1705 the English scientist Francis Hauksbee demonstrated that a mercury filled evacuated glass globe could emit light, by static electricity. In 1891, Nikola Tesla demonstrated wireless transfer of power to incandescent lamps, US patent 454622. John Anderson General Electric 2, 3 applied for patents in 1967 and 1968 for electrodeless lamps, with a construction almost similar to elctrodeless lamps that are available on the market in 2006. It would last until 1990 before large scale production of induction lamps for lighting purposes would commence.
Fluorescent induction lamps
Aside from the method of coupling energy into the mercury vapor, these lamps are very similar to conventional fluorescent lamps. Mercury vapor in the discharge vessel is electrically excited to produce short-wave ultraviolet light, which then excites the phosphors to produce visible light. While still relatively unknown to the public, these lamps have been available since 1990. The most common form has the shape of an incandescent light bulb. Unlike an incandescent lamp or conventional fluorescent lamps, there is no electrical connection going inside the glass bulb; the energy is transferred through the glass envelope solely by electromagnetic induction.
In the most common form, a glass tube (B) protrudes bulb-wards from the bottom of the discharge vessel (A). This tube contains an antenna called a power coupler, which consists of a coil wound over tubular ferrite core.
In lower-frequency versions of induction systems, the lamp consists of two long parallel glass tubes, connected by two short tubes that have coils mounted around them.
The antenna coils receive electric power from the electronic ballast (C) that generates a high frequency. The exact frequency varies with lamp design, but popular examples include 13.6 MHz, 2.65 MHz and 250 kHz (in physically large lamps). A special resonant circuit in the ballast produces an initial high voltage on the coil to start a gas discharge; thereafter the voltage is reduced to normal running level.
The system can be seen as a type of transformer, with the power coupler forming the primary coil and the gas discharge arc in the bulb forming the one-turn secondary coil and the load of the transformer. The ballast is connected to mains electricity, and is generally designed to operate on voltages between 100 and 277 VAC at a frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. Most ballasts can also be connected to DC voltage sources like batteries for emergency lighting purposes.
In other conventional gas discharge lamps, the electrodes are the part with the shortest life, limiting the lamp lifespan severely. Since an induction lamp has no electrodes, it can have a very long service life. For induction lamp systems with a separate ballast, the service life can be as long as 100,000 hours, which is 11.4 years continuous operation, or 22.8 years used at night or day only. For induction lamps with integrated ballast, the life is 15,000 to 30,000 hours. Extremely high-quality electronic circuits are needed for the ballast to attain such a long service life. Such expensive lamps have special application areas in situations where replacement costs are high.
Philips introduced their QL induction lighting systems, operating at 2.65 MHz, in 1990 in Europe and in 1992 in the US. Matsushita had induction light systems available in 1992. Intersource Technologies also announced one in 1992, called the E-lamp. Operating at 13.6 MHz, it was to be available on the US market in 1993 but as of July 2005 very few of these lamps have been manufactured.
Since 1994, General Electric has produced its induction lamp Genura with an integrated ballast, operating at 2.65 MHz. In 1996, Osram started selling their Endura induction light system, operating at 250 kHz. It is available in the US as Sylvania Icetron.
A new comer in 2006, AMKO GROUP in Taiwan has introduced their induction lamp SOLARA with a dimmable ballast and up to 400 watts of output. The neat thing about these guys is that they integrated heat dissipation solutions into their products by working with Taiwan's CPU cooling manufacturers. The lamp is produced by their subsidiary company, which is a listed company in Singapore, and they have been producing induction lighting systems for more than seven years. Research and development on induction lighting started ten years ago at a post-doctoral research facility in China. In the past, their products were available only exclusively to contracted distributors and OEM customers. That is why only industry insiders and a few researchers know about them.
Research on electrodeless lamps continues, with variations in operating frequency, lamp shape, the induction coils and other design parameters, such as Mercury free gas fills like Indiumhalogenides. Low public awareness and the relatively high prices have so far kept the use of such lamps highly specialized.
Direct-radiating sulfur lamps
Practically maintenance-free, induction lighting offers many features that make it an attractive light source and is emerging as one of the newest technologies in lighting. With a 100,000 hour rated life, these systems seldom need replacing. Particularly useful in applications where lamp replacement is cumbersome and expensive, as in some outdoor applications and in hard-to-reach areas such as tunnels, airports, public facilities, freezers, and many others.
Ultra-Long Life -100,000 hour rated life*, perfect for hard-to-reach applications
Low Total Cost of Ownership - reduced energy and maintenance costs
Crisp White Light - choice of color temperatures
Outstanding Color Performance - no shift over lamp life, high 80+ color rendering
High Reliability - instant hot and cold start-up and re-start
Stable Light Output - no variation over a wide range of temperatures and voltage fluctuations
Because its light output is not significantly influenced by ambient temperature, the induction lamp can start at very low temperatures, maintaining at least 85% of nominal lumens. Induction lighting produces high quality light in a variety of color temperatures. This makes it useful in a multitude of applications while still offering improved efficiency. This gives lighting designers more options in their designs. Relatively insensitive to line voltage fluctuations, its light output remains constant over a wide range of input voltages. The induction lamp is ideal for indoor and outdoor applications where durability and long life is certainly a high priority. As a compact source, the induction lamp can be used in a wide range of fixtures, adding further flexibility for the lighting designer.
The induction lighting system provides a longer-life lamp, superior lumen maintenance, and the crisp white light currently available from similar wattage metal halide lighting systems. These product advantages could turn into major dollar savings when considering maintenance, labor, and replacement lamp cost of existing metal halide lighting fixtures. In most cases the payback in maintenance savings will more than offset the initial cost of the system.
Lithonia Lighting warranties the fixture for one year from date of shipment, lamp manufacture warranties the lamp and ballast system for five years from date of shipment.
Q. What is the QL and how does induction lighting work?
A. The QL lamp systems uses a revolutionary technology of light generation that combines the basic principals ofinduction and gas discharge in an A-lamp design. Void of electrodes this new technology delivers an unprecedented100,000 hours of high quality white light.
Q. What are the components of the QL system?
A. The system is comprised of three components; the generator, the power coupler and the lamp.
Q. Why QL Lighting?
A. QL induction lighting offers an amazing 100,000hours life making it virtually maintenance free. It offers crisp white light with 80+ CRI and a choice of 3K and 4K color temperatures. QLoffers high reliability and instant on and off.
Q. Does QL need a dedicated fixture?
A. Yes. Due to operating and thermal requirements the system needs to be properly installed in a suitable fixture.
Q. Who makes a QL fixture?
A. Most fixture manufacturers are familiar with the QL system and offer fixtures designed around the QL. Ask your local Philips sales representative for a complete listing.
Q. Can running a lamp interfere with computers or any other electronic device?
A. No. The QL system complies with FCC rules with noninterference under normal circumstances.
Q. Will the QL lighting system interfere with telecommunication equipment?
A. No. The FCC standards are in place to protect navigation and radio communications. The system will not interfere with portable or cellular/mobile phones.
Q. Is the light output of a QL lamp affected by low temperature? High temperatures?
A. QL’s amalgam fill technology and the heat conduction rod in the center create stable light output over a wide range of ambient temperatures, maintaining at least 85% of nominal lumens from -30° F to 130° F(for an enclosed fixture with heatsink). QL systems can start at temperatures as low as -40° F.
Q. Does operating position affect output?
A. No. The universal operating position does not affect the performance of the QL system.
Q. What is the color shift of the QL system?
A. The color shift is very small over life. In new installations the color may appear “pink” until the system stabilizesand the mercury has vaporized. The light will change to a normal white color within a few minutes.
Q. Is QL dimmable?
A. At the present time QL cannot be dimmed.
Q. Can the QL system be used for a “flashing beacon”?
A. The QL system is recommended for use in long burning applications. Constant on and off switching reduces the system life significantly.
Q. Is QL vibration-resistant?
A. Yes. The fact that QL has no electrodes makes it more reliable in high-vibration and gusty applications. QL has proven its durability in bridges, tunnels, and signage applications.
Q. What, if any, is the effect of voltage supply fluctuations on the performance of the QL system?
A. Due to the built-in pre-conditioner in the HF generator, which provides a well stabilized internal supply voltage(a wide operating voltage range of +/- 20V) to the HF generator, the light output, consumed power and systemefficacy (efficiency) of lamp system vary by less than 2% as a result of mains voltage fluctuations. There is nonoticeable effect (visual or measurable) on the color performance (color temperature, color rendering, etc.) due to supply voltage fluctuation.
Q. Will QL lighting fade or damage materials?
A. The amount of ultraviolet light generated by an 85W QL is roughly equivalent to that of a regular fluorescentlamp per 1000 lux. The permissible exposure time (PET) is >40 hours per 1000 lux, generously above the norm(24 hours per 1000 lux). The damage factor for materials is rated at a low 0.3 so QLs can generally be used inopen luminaires without any front glass.
Q. How far can the HF generator be remotely mounted from the power coupler/discharge vessel assembly?
A. The length of the coaxial cable connecting them (15”). Because the cable forms part of the oscillating circuit of the HF generator, the length of the cable cannot be modified.
Q. At the end of life, must all components be replaced?
A. All three components are separately replaceable, however, QL is almost always supplied as a three-component system, even for relamping. End of life usually means the generator must be replaced and, at the time, it is usuallyrecommended to replace the bulb, as phosphor degeneration at 100,000 hours lowers lumen output 35% to 40%.
Q. Why is QL worth more?
A. QL offers five to ten times the life of HID systems for only two to three times the cost of the HID lamp and ballast. And the QL system is warranted for five years. In most cases the payback in maintenance savings will more than offset the additional cost of the initial system.P-5502
Friday, November 24, 2006
From the Big Three and US:
Philips QL Electrodeless Induction System Lamps: http://www.lamptech.co.uk/Spec%20Sheets/Philips%20QL85.htm
OSRAM Endura Inductively Coupled Electrodeless: http://www.lamptech.co.uk/Spec%20Sheets/Osram%20Endura.htm
GE Genura Self-ballasted Electrodeless Reflector: http://www.lamptech.co.uk/Spec%20Sheets/GE%20Genura.htm
Slyvania (Osram) Icetron Electrodeless Lamp system: http://www.sylvania.com/BusinessProducts/LightingForBusiness/Products/Lamps/Fluorescent/Icetron/
Matsushita National Electrodeless Pa-Look Ball YOU: http://www.lamptech.co.uk/Spec%20Sheets/National%20PFA15.htm
Last but not least, the Chinese manufacturers, including Hong Kong and Taiwan:
Amko SOLARA Induction Lights: http://www.amko.com.tw/
Tungda Dura-Lite Electrodeless Induction Lamp: http://www.lamptech.co.uk/Spec%20Sheets/Tungda%20TL85.htm
Hongyuan LVD Electrodeless Induction Lamp: http://www.lamptech.co.uk/Spec%20Sheets/Hongyuan%20Saturn%202.htm
The original document can be found here: http://www.aboutlightingcontrols.org/education/papers/high-low-bay.shtml
Some manufacturers have recently introduced induction lighting fixtures as a replacement for HID fixtures in high-ceiling applications. Like fluorescent, induction lighting offers the benefits of instant on and instant re-strike, ability to be used with occupancy sensors, lamp-to-lamp color consistency, good lumen maintenance, and negligible color shift. Primary advantages include compact fixture size, up to 100,000-hour rated lamp life, and retained performance in extremely cold conditions.
An induction system is similar to a fluorescent system in that mercury in a gas fill inside the bulb is excited, emitting UV radiation that in turn is converted into visible white light by the phosphor coating on the bulb. Like fluorescent, the phosphor coating determines the color qualities of the light. Fluorescent lamps use electrodes to strike the arc and initiate the flow of current through the lamp, which excites the gas fill. Each time voltage is supplied by the ballast and the arc is struck, the electrodes degrade a little, eventually causing the lamp to fail. Induction lamps do not use electrodes. Instead of a ballast, the system uses a high-frequency generator with a power coupler. The generator produces a radio frequency magnetic field to excite gas fill. With no electrodes, the lamp lasts longer. Induction lamps, in fact, last up to 100,000 hours, with the lamp producing 70% of its light output at 60,000 hours. In other words, their rated life is 5-13 times longer than metal halide (7,500 to 20,000 hours at 10 hours/start) and about seven times longer than T12HO fluorescent (at 10 hours/start).
Long life with subsequent maintenance and lamp replacement savings, combined with high system efficiency, result in life-cycle cost savings for the owner.
Induction lamps are ideally suited for high-ceiling applications where the lamps are difficult, costly or hazardous to access. They are also ideally suited for such applications where the advantages of fluorescent lighting are sought but a light source is needed that can start and operate efficiently in extremely cold temperatures. As a result, induction lighting is a suitable for a wide range of applications, including not only warehouses, industrial buildings, cafeterias, gymnasiums, etc., but also signage, tunnels, bridges, roadways, outdoor area and security fixtures, parking garages, public spaces, and freezer and cold storage lighting.
Induction lighting poses several disadvantages. These lamps cannot be dimmed. Induction lighting cannot retrofit existing HID fixtures without a dedicated retrofit kit. In addition, an induction system can cost up to 4+ times more than an HID system.
The original post can be found here http://archlighting.com/architecturallighting/search/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1741520&imw=Y
The main attraction of induction lighting is incredibly long lifetime. In a fluorescent lamp, the electrodes at either end are the weakest link, and the lamp usually fails when the cathode coating on one of the electrodes is depleted after 15,000–20,000 hours. Induction lamps have no such electrodes, so their rated lifetimes are as long as 100,000 (that's over 11 years, running 24/7!). They also have good vibration resistance and low starting temperatures, making them a good choice for rugged operating environments.
Induction lamps are discharge lamps, where the idea is to get mercury or other atoms to elevate their energy level, then discharge a photon as they fall back to normal. Induction lamps differ from fluorescents—their closest relative in the lighting family—in the way they energize the mercury atoms. Instead of striking an arc between electrodes in a tube, an electromagnetic field is generated by a carefully shaped coil. The field created by the coil induces a current flow in the gas/mercury blend within the lamp. This current excites the mercury atoms and starts the flow of photons. Mercury atoms emit UV photons; phosphors lining the lamp wall absorb the UV photons and in turn emit visible photons.
Like high-quality fluorescents, induction lamps offer instant strike, instant restrike, color stability, 80+ CRI, high power factor and low THD. A ballast—in this case called a field generator—is required to provide the power electronics that drive the induced current in the lamp. Finally, induction lamps have a coupling device that wraps the induction coils around some part of the lamp itself. Induction technology is not dimmable at this time, but it could be in the future.
The first lighting product to use induction technology was the Philips QL lamp, originally introduced in Europe in 1990 and in the U.S. in 1992. The QL is a globe-shaped lamp available in three sizes at 55W, 85W and 165W, and two color temperatures at 3000K and 4000K. With the coupling device at its base, it looks a bit like an overgrown A-lamp. The separate 2.65MHz field generator is rated for operation at or below 75 degree Celsius; its lifetime is cut in half for each 10-degree Celsius rise above that temperature. Lumen maintenance is 70 percent at 60,000 hours and 55 percent at 100,000 hours. Philips product specialist, Austin Cahill, says that the QL is primarily an OEM product and that the market is growing, particularly for outdoor installations such as tunnel and freeway sign illumination.
GE Lighting's Genura lamp was the next on the scene, although its emergence in the U.S. market was fitful. This 23W lamp is a self-contained induction lamp with a standard Edison screwbase. With its relatively low light output (1100 lumens) and 15,000-hour lifetime, the Genura is really more akin to a screw-in compact fluorescent. The Genura is available in color temperatures of 2700K and 3000K and is not dimmable. Gary Crawford of GE Lighting says that although the lamp is available in some retail stores, it is mostly a commercial product sold through distributors. Applications include downlights in hotel lobbies and hallways and retail fixtures where they can sometimes replace halogen PAR lamps. Crawford says that the Genura actually handles hot environments better than compact fluorescent alternatives.
Although it is now a forgotten chapter in history, in 1992, a media campaign blanketed the country, touting the "lamp of the future"—the so-called E-lamp from Intersource Technologies. The E-lamp was an induction lamp that was first targeted at the downlight market. Unfortunately, the company seemed to have spent more of its funds on marketing than on engineering, and the product never made it to shelves.
The next induction lamp to reach the market was the Osram Sylvania Icetron, introduced in 1996. The Icetron lamp has two cylindrical field sources at opposite ends of a rectangular tube and is available in 100W and 150W models; a 75W version is due for release. Color temperatures are 3500K and 4100K, and lumen maintenance is 70 percent at 60,000 hours and about 64 percent at 100,000 hours. Like the QL, Icetron has a separate field generator; its rated maximum temperature is 70 degrees Celsius.
"The product's acceptance rate was slow at first, but now we're finding applications that go beyond our initial focus," said Dwight Kitchen, manager of commercial engineering at Osram Sylvania. One such application is the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C. where Icetron is used to light the portico area of the structure. Added Kitchen, "This increased demand for Icetron has resulted in our decision to launch a 75W version later this quarter."